Unrealized Factors Development of a Preschool Child
- G. S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Ukraine
Background and aim of study:
To reveal and understand the logic of the manifestation of the child’s development opportunities and build a humane-psychological support for the development process of his personal potential is the leading task of psychological and pedagogical science. Today, the issue of preserving the health and psychophysiological reserves of the child, his intellectual and emotional capabilities, and personal and moral maturity is becoming more acute. We note a significant increase in information-aware children and a reluctance to learn. Education at school is not leading in children's priorities. This explains the relevance of the search for unrealized reserves for the development of potential opportunities for a preschool child. Research purpose is to study the nature of the value orientations of senior preschoolers in gaming as one of the objectives of the study “The specifics of the formation of the value orientations of senior preschoolers in the family”.
We conducted a series of targeted observations of the game activities of children in a preschool; conversations with children and parents about the nature of the child’s activities in their free time; target observations and analysis of speech utterances of senior preschool children in the process of activity in a preschool institution regulated by adults.
A child is a holistic organism that is constantly changing, immersed in itself and in the surrounding world. Adults do not take into account this pattern, do not learn to comprehend the course and manifestations of this process. Namely, this is a prerequisite for the formation of conscious responsibility and the right to raise a child, accompanying the process of self- movement of the development path. Adults (both parents and teachers) consciously apply for a child’s playing time, motivating them with concern for development and, most importantly. preparation for the “modern” school. As a result, the child has limited rights to a happy childhood; his freedom adapts to the format that adults see the “right” life support - the format of intelligent affairs and educational games. In this case, one very important detail is omitted by adults: the game is the leading activity of the child, and it is in the process of game activity that important qualitative achievements in her psyche occur. It is worth recalling that the game is the life form of a child in which his vital needs are realized and universal human abilities turn out to be and develop. In game activity all spheres of a child’s life are represented. Only in the game does the child have the opportunity to be himself and everyone here and now. That’s why it is believed that it is in the game that the foundation of the personality is laid. An important task of psychological and pedagogical support of the child’s development process is to support the transfer of gaming experience in real life, in different types of activities organized in such a way as “in reality”. Process of transition from the game to the realities of life creates a unique situation for the initiation of the child’s creative activity (the condition is the child’s freedom of action and the support of an adult partner), the emotional attractiveness of which serves as the motive for choosing an activity. An adult should remember that the specific activity of the child in the preschool years is primarily the game. It is in the game that the leading heritage of childhood - imagination and creativity - is most fully developed. In a playful, imaginary situation, the child rises above himself, comprehends the mechanism of interaction with the world, makes the first steps of self- development, the ability to learn. In the game activity is not accelerated the process of development of opportunities of the child, and maturing quality of the psyche. There is a natural enrichment of creative imagination and creative abilities, the ability to see the world from the position of another, to see the whole before the parts.
Here, the child also learns the world as a social being, building a foundation for generalizations of a new quality. The child gradually “outgrows” the game, mastering the ability to anticipate and track the process of completing the task. It is important for the preschooler to go through all the steps of the game, from manipulative to rule-based games. It is the growing role of the rule, the implementation of the rule, which becomes the main content of the game of six-year-old children. This prepares for the transition to educational motivation.
DOI and UDC:
UDC: 159.922.73 DOI: 10.26697/ijes.2020.2.23
Information about the authors:
Fedorchuk Olena Ivanivna – Researcher, Laboratory of Preschool Psychology, G. S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine. Research interests: preschool psychology, parental responsibility; http://orcid.org/0000-0001-8942-7008.