Professional Self-Realization in the Context of the Reformative Tendencies of Modern Higher Education
- Flight Academy of National Aviation University, Ukraine
Background and aim of study:
To illustrate the structural organization of the educational process at the universities/colleges in foreign countries and to build the perspective of the personality towards professional self-realization by choosing the appropriate type of higher education institution
Theoretical analysis, comparison.
Scientists consider the problem of professional selfrealization in the context of the reformative tendencies of modern education. The essence of studying at the university is to help students realize themselves, prepare for their professional activities and build their life's ideals. Students who are aware of the goals and methods of training are able to choose such a way. The experience of organizing students youth studying in foreign countries and the possibility of choosing different types of higher education institutions are worthy of noting. Higher education in France and Germany is under the guidance of state authorities. Requirements for admission to higher educational institutions of both countries are the same. In France, an exam called “baccalaureate” is a final exam, which is compiled by students after the completion of high school. Higher education in France is available to anyone who has passed this exam. Passing (admission) score allows students to enter the university for the first year, which ends with another, more serious examination, the successful completion of which allows students to study at the university three or four years. Because of the unified approach and uniformity of curricula, universities in France differ a little from each other. Another feature is the existence of higher education institutions in France, called the grandesecoles, and which guarantee higher-quality professionall training. In Germany, local universities have the right to choose their own curriculum under the direction of rectors elected at the university. Students in Germany change universities according to their interests and the quality of providing educational services. As a result, students study in two or three or even four universities during their studies. Most of the faculty lecturers/professors work concurrently at four or five universities. This apparent mobility means that curricula and exam programs are characterized by autonomy, which is not so usual for the French education system. A characteristic feature of British universities is the organization of self-government. Universities in Britain are virtually independent of State government and local government in managing and defining curricula, despite the fact that they are in public funding. An applicant must receive a certificate of secondary education (similar to a French baccalaureate), then pass exams from various subjects and receiving a pass mark (an admission score). The greater the number of advanced level exams a student will gain, the more likely he will be able to enter the higher education institution of his choice. This is the first grand test for future professionals, since it refers to a conscious professional choice and a mood to the process of professional self-realization in career. The US higher education system is somewhat different from the European model of education. According to nationwide regulations, Americans can study at a university for two years: in colleges with a two-year course (professional training schools) and local colleges (community colleges). Universities offering a four-year course of study are privately funded or local institutions that are dependent on government financial support. Graduates can continue their studies for a higher degree in specialized institutes, enabling them to obtain a Master’s degree (1-2 years) or a Ph.D. degree (2-4 years of study). The model of the American education system was integrated in the Philippines and influenced the educational system of Japan and Taiwan. A characteristic feature of the organization of the educational process in Japanese universities is a clear division into general science and special disciplines. Terms of study at all universities are standardized. The basic course of higher education is 4 years in all major areas of study and specialties. Upon completion of the basic course, a Bachelor’s degree – (Gakushi) is awarded. Graduates who have found research abilities can continue their studies for a Master’s degree (Shushi). It lasts for two years. The degree of Ph.D. (Hakushi) requires three years of study for those with a Master’s degree and at least 5 years for Bachelors. Higher education in Japan includes four types of educational institutions: 1) full cycle universities; 2) universities of the accelerated cycle; 3) professional colleges; 4) technical institutes
Therefore, a special place in the improvement of the country’s intellectual potential belongs to the higher education system. Any reforms require highly skilled professionals in various fields of economic activity. That is why the choice of higher educational institution is an important step in the process of professional selfrealization of the personality.
DOI and UDC:
DOI: 10.26697/ijes.2018.3-4.07; UDC: 331.548::31.422:(4/9)+378
Information about the authors:
Radul Serhii Hryhorovych – Doctor of Philosophy in Pedagogy, Associate Professor of the Foreign Languages Department, Flight Academy of National Aviation University, Kropyvnytskyi, Ukraine.