Modernization of Higher Education in Ukraine: Perspective for Physical Education of Students
- Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Ukraine
Background and aim of study:
In 1929, “Physical Education” as an obligatory academic subject was introduced into the system of higher education of Ukraine (in those years - the republic of the USSR). The academic subject was initially named “Physical Culture”. The aim subject of was the massive involvement of students in regular physical education and sports. Over the next decades the subject has always been part of the curriculum of all professional programs of Ukraine’ higher school. The process of the development of the academic subject was greatly influenced by external factors: the need for military-physical training of young people and the training of highly qualified athletes. In recent decades, due to the deterioration of the health of young people, health-improving tasks have become priorities. It is obvious, that the evolutionary path of the state’s development is characterized by reforming and improving social institutions, in particular education. In the context of Ukraine’s European integration, substantial modernization of the higher education system is necessary. These changes should take into account objective reality and be aimed at strengthening and renewal.
This research used the following methods: - the study of legal documents Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine (MESU) regulating the physical education of students in high school during the period from 2014-2018; - analysis of the results of the annual tests of physical fitness of students (2017-2018); - summary of personal pedagogical experience.
The reality is. More than 80% of students have deviations in their health and physical developmental deficiencies, an insufficient level of physical fitness (according to the results of national testing). The level of motor activity is unsatisfactory. Health status is not a priority in the value system of students. Motor skills are very limited. Students do not have a sustainable motivation for physical education and mass sports as an important factor in physical and social well-being, improving health, quality of life and professional selfrealization. Passion for virtual reality and social networks has a negative impact on students' mental health. It is necessary to take into account the fact of Ukraine’s participation in the war, and that students are a potential reserve of the army. It is obvious that in such a situation for higher educational institutions, the creation of an environment that favorably affects the increase in the physical activity and physical fitness of students should be a priority. However, the MESU, by its inconsistent policy in the field of physical education of students, created the prerequisites for the destruction of the system. In 2015, the MESU offered to make the obligatory academic subject “Physical Education” optional for students, as an elective. Realizing the principle of autonomy, many universities and academies began to consistently exclude this academic subject from the content of higher education in Ukraine. Instead of improving the health caring environment, universities have taken the path of its destruction. The main form of physical education of students was in a state of elimination. Of course, the academic subject “Physical Education” requires improvement in the light of current trends in the development of science and pedagogical practice. The formation of health caring competence should be the aim of modern physical education of students. Studying at the university and further professional activities are healthy expenses processes. They require the active use of health caring technologies. A graduate of a higher educational institution must possess the skills of preserving physical, social, psychological health and take care of the health of others. But today there is no concept, model or program for the development of students' physical education in Ukraine.
Thus, after 90 years, the academic subject “Physical Education” as the main form of physical education of students was under threat of liquidation, it may become a thing of the past and become history. The system of physical education of students was in a state of degradation.
DOI and UDC:
DOI: 10.26697/ijes.2018.3-4.06; UDC: 378.172-057.875
Information about the authors:
Prikhodko Anna Ivanovna − Doctor of Philosophy in Pedagogy, Associate Рrofessor, Associate Рrofessor of Department of Physical Education, Yaroslav Mudryi National Law University, Kharkiv, Ukraine